Appropriate behaviors

What Is Differential Reinforcement?

Differential reinforcement is an intervention whereby behavior X receives consequence X and behavior Y receives consequence Y. Often, behavior x is the target behavior (the behavior we want to decrease) and behavior y is the appropriate behavior (the behavior we want to increase).  The behaviors we want to decrease or increase…

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Journal Club: “Just Make It Stop”

An 89-year-old woman diagnosed with severe vascular dementia cried excessively on van rides home from her adult day center. Authors used a differential reinforcement procedure to decrease levels of crying to zero or near zero levels. Day center staff, however, were not actively involved in application of the intervention. Warning signs…

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How To Make Your Own Picture Communication Cards

Anyone can make picture cards. All you need is a word processing or presentation program, the Internet, and a printer. First, make a list of picture cards needed for clients/loved ones. Then, search online for images that best represent those activities or items. Cut and paste those images into a…

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Picture Card Communication for Individuals With Dementia

As dementia patients decline, their ability to communicate using words decreases. Individuals become aphasic or mute and cannot communicate basic wants. Ineffective ways of communicating leads to challenging behaviors, caregiver depression, and isolated patients. Picture or text reminders are frequently used in cognitive rehabilitation or during reminiscence activities. Pictures can be used…

Data 2

How Much Does He Wander? [Assessment PDF]

When I first meet a caregiver, one of the first questions I ask is “How much?” How long does she yell – for 30 minutes straight? Off and on all day? How often does she throw things – Once a day? Once a week? How much does he wander –…

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How To Measure Target Behaviors?

There are several ways to measure target behaviors. Behavior analysts will choose the simplest strategy for caregivers to use and focus on measures that will produce the best information. Here are the most common measurement strategies behavior analysts ask caregivers to use: Frequency: Behavior analysts may ask caregivers to count…

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When And Where To Measure Target Behaviors?

Persons who spend the most time with individuals exhibiting target behaviors typically collect the data. This usually includes caregivers, nurses, aides, or family members. Behavior analysts will collect data and measure behaviors during weekly sessions. It is important to record the target behavior immediately after it occurs. Most behavior analysts…

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Why Data Collection Is Important

Collecting information on the target behavior (what we want to change) is an essential part of the assessment and intervention process. Measuring behavior is important, because it allows therapists to: determine if behavioral services are essential. identify which challenging behavior should be targeted first. identify which environmental events influence target…

ABC Model

What Is The ABC Model?

Behavior analysts believe that behaviors are shaped by our environment. The likelihood that a behavior will increase or decrease depends on the events that happen right before or right after a target behavior. We observe what occurs in a person’s environment — antecedents, behaviors, and consequences — to identify environmental…

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What Are Functional Behavioral Assessments?

Behavior analysts believe that all behaviors serve a purpose — even challenging behaviors (e.g., yelling, wandering, aggression). Just like appropriate behaviors (e.g., asking for an activity) can get us things we want and can get us out of things we do not want (e.g., asking to leave an aversive situation),…

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